IALA Heritage Lighthouse of the Year 2021 Nominee
Location: Hainan Porvince. Lingao County. Lincheng Town.
Lighthouse Operator: The Navigation Guarantee Center of South China Sea (NGCS), MOT
Source: (photos as submitted to accompany nomination form by The Navigation Guarantee Center of South China Sea (NGCS), MOT in 2021, photo credit Song Guoqiang/ Hndaily)
Lighthouse Description and History
|(Text extracted from nomination form submitted by The Navigation Guarantee Center of South China Sea (NGCS), MOT in 2021)|
|Lingao Lighthouse is situated in Lingao Liberation Park, Changgong Village, Lincheng Town, Lingao County, Hainan Province in China, it is one of the major lighthouses in the northwest of Hainan and crosses the sea from the Jiaoweijiao Lighthouse at the southernmost point of China, and beyond that, it is also the connection between two lighthouses marking the reporting line for ships to enter the west entrance of the Qiongzhou Strait. Both two lighthouses protect the navigation safety of the west entrance of the Qiongzhou Strait together.
Lingao Lighthouse is 22 meters high and has a light range of 18 nautical miles. The lighthouse is red and white band with cylindrical cast iron riveted structure, the whole body is supported by 6 main steel inclining columns, 350 steel rods hanged frame structure with bracing and built in spiral staircase. The lighthouse adopts a new type of flash equipment, octahedral bullseye with hand-polished glass lens, and equipped with latest radar. The working current and voltage of the whole system are under remote monitoring state. Near the lighthouse is the lighthouse guard room, which is used for staff rest and lighthouse energy supply.
The lighthouse has a long history. In 1868, in order to facilitate the trade of ports and transport the call port message conveniently, Hurd, a British at the time of the general taxation department of the customs, proposed to the Qing government to build a lighthouse, which began the prelude to construct the lighthouse in modern China. In 1893, Qiong customs began to build the Lingao Lighthouse in Hainan; In 1950, it was handed over to The PLA Navy;In 1975, Lingao Lighthouse began to experiment with new energy sources (Replaced the original acetylene gas with dry batteries and then switched to lead acid batteries);In 1982, Lingao Lighthouse ,it was officially handed over to Haikou AtoN Department for maintenance; In December 1992, customs continued to build a lighthouse guarding room; In May 1997, Lingao Lighthouse was shortlisted for one of the world’s 100 heritage lighthouses by IALA; In April 1998, radar transponder was installed, at the same time it was remembered at the book named “The World Historic Heritage Lighthouse Atlas” and became one of the world’s famous lighthouses; In May 2002, it was listed as “Historical Heritage Lighthouse” the special stamp and issued by Chinese State Administration of Stamps; In 2009, it was listed as a historical heritage protection unit in Hainan province, and the monitoring and remoting control system was installed in the same year. From 2010 to 2011, the lighthouse was restored in response to the international principle of “restore the old as the old”, restored the original appearance of the lighthouse when it was first built by France more than 100 years ago. In May 2013, it was announced as the seventh batch of China’s key cultural heritage protection units and as the representative of China in the protection of historical lighthouses, the case of Lingao lighthouse restoration was studied in the IALA lighthouse heritage protection seminar, and including the efforts, achievements and experience about the lighthouse, as well as the case of the restoration process of Lingao lighthouse, which was recognized by the conference and praised by some national representatives.
There are some amazing scenery around the Lingao Lighthouse and it also has the kilometers of beaches ashore, the sea water is clear, the sunny beach is soft, the coconut trees shows rapid growth, it is one of the fine natural swimming places on the west coast of Hainan. Look at the east and west sides of the beach, on the west side where is called Dapeng Bay with a calm sea, but the waves are rolling on the east side. In autumn the wind blowing, the sound of the waves like endless, it has been compare the autumn waves of South China Sea.
In recent years, with the increasing popularity of Hainan, as an international tourism island and free trade port, tourists and talents from all over the world have gathered in Hainan.
Lingao Lighthouse is not only a witness to history, but also a pioneer in the torrent of innovation. It not only represents the black, white and gray colors, on the contrary it is stand for colorful and full of vitality. From 2010 to 2011, in response to the international principle of “restore the old as the old”, the Lingao Lighthouse was restored to its original appearance when it was first built by France more than 100 years ago. After the renovation, the lighthouse works as usual, and has stable and reliable performance, what’s more, it has improved the The range of light exposure, the operation of the lighthouse is automated, the century-old lighthouse has reproduced the light.
Nowadays, after Hainan has become a free trade district, ships passing in and out of Qiongzhou Strait are getting busier and busier. The Lingao Lighthouse shoulders a more important mission and grand blueprint. It is not only the most charming tourist scenic spot in the chain of lighthouses around the island in Hainan but also an important link of the electronic fence around the Hainan island and assisting the maritime supervision department to collect data of passing ships and analyze ship movements.
Lingao Lighthouse responds to the development concept of “Innovative, Coordinated, Green, Open and Shared” and the 2020 IALA slogan is successful voyage, sustainable planet, which is more in line with the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.
Reason For Nomination
|(Text extracted from nomination form submitted by Ministère de la mer – Direction des Affaires Maritimes in 2021)|
|Intrinsic Heritage Interest of the Lighthouse
The Lingao Lighthouse is located on Hainan Island, it is a beautiful sea island at the southern of China. In Hainan Island, the so-called oriental Hawaii of the South China Sea, the sun, the beach and sea breeze are synonymous with it. Lingao Lighthouse is located at the seaside of Lingao Cape, Changgong Village, Lincheng Town, Lingao County in Hainan,in its surrounding also contains a pleasant scenery, there are kilometers of beaches ashore, the sea water is clear, the sunny beach is soft, the coconut trees are green , it is one of the fine natural swimming places on the west coast of Hainan. On the west side where is called Dapeng Bay with a calm sea, but the waves are rolling on the east side. The autumn wind blowing, the sound of the waves likes endless, it is known as the autumn waves of South China Sea.
Lingao Lighthouse is the oldest lighthouse in Hainan, it was completed in November 1894, unlikely most lighthouses of the same period, it is not just a single color or an only standing shape, Lingao lighthouse is a red and white horizontal cylindrical structure, when it was built, the builders also designed the lighthouse as a cast-iron structure in accordance with local conditions and the climate. There are 6 inclined columns and 350 steel rods supporting the lighthouse, so that the Lingao Lighthouse could withstand the storm.
During the restoration evaluation in 2010, the site investigation showed that the Lingao Lighthouse was a strong construction and the reticular structure outside the lighthouse was basically stable. The structure of the upper lantern is basically intact, and illuminate normally; The lighthouse body and lantern painted mark are bright, daily maintenance and its condition are so good. In general, the overall situation shows that the lighthouse was built and maintained to the highest quality, it is a miracle of the history of lighthouses.
The lighthouse standing for hundreds of years to light the way for passing ships, and fully embodies the spirit of the lighthouse – burn yourself to illuminate others.
Lingao Lighthouse is 22 meters high and has a range of 18 nautical miles. It has a built-in spiral staircase with 82 steps and a range of 18 nautical miles. The lantern is made of glass lens hand-polished by eight-side bullseye, and a new type of flash equipment is embedded in a copper frame with smooth lines and round lines. Every evening, under the reflection of the sunset glow, the Lingao Lighthouse, which has been polished and settled over the years, becomes more and more brilliant and radiant.
Including tracing back to Chinese lighthouse. In the past, the rocks were used as natural AtoN. Most of the lighthouses in ancient China were built with funds raised by the civilian or the government. The architectural features of the lighthouses were mainly in the form of pagodas, reflecting the cultural concept of the buddha protected ships to voyage. For example, Guangzhou Huaisheng Temple pagoda and Shanghai Qingpumao pagoda were built in the Tang Dynasty, Jiangxin Island Dongfeng Xiangyan Pagoda and Xifeng Jianshiyan Pagoda were built in the Tang and Song Dynasties in Zhejiang Province.
In order to facilitate the trade of ports and transport the call port message conveniently, Hurd, a British at the time of the general taxation department of the customs, proposed to the Qing government to build a lighthouse, which began the prelude to construct the lighthouse in modern China. From 1858 to 1927, a total of 59 lighthouses were built by the customs in China. These lighthouses integrate modern history, aesthetics, navigation, architecture and forging technology, which is the historical witness of the integration of Chinese and Western cultures.
In 1894, Qiong customs were built two lighthouses in Hainan- Xiuying Lighthouse and Lingao Lighthouse. In 1895, Jiaoweijiao Lighthouse was built in Guangdong which located in the southernmost part of the Chinese mainland, Jiaoweijiao Lighthouse faces Lingao Lighthouse across the sea. For centuries, Jiaoweijiao Lighthouse has jointly guarded the safety navigation at the west entrance of Qiongzhou Strait. The connection between the two lighthouses is currently the reporting line for ships to enter the west entrance of Qiongzhou Strait.
Lingao Lighthouse is in Lingao Lighthouse Liberation Park, the park has four parts themes, and it is belongs to the themes of the centuries lighthouse, Hainan’s first lighthouse exhibition area also build besides lighthouse when it began construction in December 2012, it covering an area of 80 square meters. It shows the distribution map of Hainan coastal AtoN, the function and distribution of 24 lighthouses, the historical origin of Lingao Lighthouse, the historical log of Lingao Lighthouse, and the lanterns, lantern holders, lantern casings and other objects used throughout the history. When you are stand in the exhibition area, a strong smell of the sea blows on your face, and the thick history of the lighthouse is awe-inspiring. Lingao Lighthouse, the main character of the exhibition hall, condenses the history of the development of the lighthouse culture of the whole combination of China and the West.
In October 2020, the four themes in the Lingao liberation park have attracted many citizens and tourists to visited and played. According to incomplete statistics, during the Two Festivals (The Mid-Autumn Festival and National Day ) Golden Weeks, the number of tourists to Lingaojiao Liberation Park have reached 31,000 people, and the number of visitors accounted for about two thirds of the total, about 19,000 people.
In addition, the Lingao Lighthouse is not only a witnesses of history, but also as an innovation forerunner of rapids, it not only represents the black and white or grey colors, but stand for colourful and lively. The time gives this old man mature flavor, but not able to withstand its contribution for aids to navigation technology development.
The Lingao Lighthouse is a witness to the development of Hainan Island. It is also a witness to the development of Hainan Island from a small city in Guangdong province to an independent province, and then to an international tourism island, and then to a free trade port. In recent years, with the promotion of the popularity of international tourism island and Hainan free trade port, tourists and talents from all over the world have gathered in Hainan. Hainan is not only a free trade port in China, but also a free trade port in the world. It strives to promote the development of the world economy through mutual communication and mutual promotion through diversified cooperation, and the future will also face high lighthouse beacons contributions to the development of science and technology and international intelligent shipping, never stop, for example, in recent years, the development of Hainan tourism highway, embodies the Hainan regional geographic features and characteristics of the natural and cultural landscape tourism channel, is our country the article 25 the state ecological landscape corridor road, one of which is equipped with multiple island attractions, and not only road, also has a slow, ride the doers of the word, and 25 lighthouse exactly a week around the island, in the high Angle of the lighthouse which is full of stories and charming attractions also tourists will go to clock in the holy land, through the lighthouse pavilion with the introduction of aids to navigation, as well as the multiple theme activities, at that time, if we have the opportunity to jointly issue peripheral products with local travel agencies, it will surely enhance the public’s awareness of lighthouses, AtoN and maritime affairs, which will not only increase the local economic income, but also improve the influence of lighthouses, navigation beacons and maritime affairs.
In the near future, it will build the electronic fence in Hainan, the lighthouse which around the island must be a good on a trial basis points, as an important link and bayonet in the chain of lighthouses around the Hainan island, it will also be the first to devote ourselves to science and technology, a device for collecting information and data is installed on the lighthouse to collect the data and information of passing ships. Besides, the real-time detection and tracking can also be carried out to understand and grasp the intention and dynamics of ships. Through the identification of big data, it will contribute to international maritime smuggling and crimes and provide typical cases for the international community.
Lingao Lighthouse not only belongs to China, but also belongs to the world. It is the past navigation technology and the modern new crystal of aids to navigation technology, can show all the way to the world, the development of the cause of the beacon, not only responded to the development concept of ‘Innovative, Coordinated, Green, Open and Shared’, IALA 2020 year slogan ‘Successful Voyage, Sustainable Planet’, a joint UN sustainable development goals.In the future, we will continue to devote ourselves to science and technology on the platform of navigation mark.Lingao Lighthouse was born in war, but it loves peace. It has always been a benevolent guardian of navigation safety. Today, it guides the world with its own light of peace. Welcome to the ancient Oriental country of peace and friendship, and welcome to participate in the construction of the beautiful and open free trade port of Hainan.
1.Inheritance and protection of the history and culture of lighthouses. Maintaining the original appearance of the lantern and ensuring it can be normally operate is the main goal of the functional restoration and transformation of the AtoN lantern. To keep the original appearance of the lighthouse unchanged is to restore the guiding and navigation function of the historical lantern on the basis of the original appearance and on the premise of not changing the overall layout of the historical lantern, so as to achieve the inheritance and protection of the historical culture of the lighthouse.
2.Lingao Lighthouse has been well protected through a half century of guarding by lighthouse keeper. Including the father and son of the two generations who take turns guarding the lighthouse. It is still as new as before. In 1997, Lingao Lighthouse was approved as a World Historic Heritage Lighthouse by IALA. In March 2013, it was listed as the seventh batch of state-level cultural relics protection unit. In 2002, Wang Guangmin which is the oldest one lighthouse keepers was awarded the “Golden Anchor Award” by the National Committee of the Chinese Seamen and Construction Workers’ Union.
3.Establish the corresponding rules and regulations. In 2004, the China MSA issued The Measures for the Protection and Management of Historical Lighthouses in the Maritime Areas of China (Interim), which made detailed provisions on the protection and maintenance of historical lighthouses, has a very good guiding significance for the management of historical lighthouses in the future by the administrative departments of AtoN. In 2018, the Regulations for the Protection of Historical Lighthouses, issued by the Ministry of Transport of China, set out detailed requirements for the daily maintenance, emergency reinforcement, repair, removal, construction of protective facilities, collection and display of historical lighthouses. Not just that, each AtoN Management Department will also combine its own unit’s different operation mechanism and personnel structure to forming its own good operation system, and every year need to update.
4.Real-time tracking of international latest technology, including IMO, IALA or other major conferences. The relevant suggestions put forward in the conference, carefully study, what we should make sure is to absorb the essence and discard the dregs. For example, the IALA 1049 Guide on Optical Technology of Modern Light Sources for Traditional Lighthouses, through learning and introduction, LED light sources can be used to replace the original light source for traditional light sources with high energy consumption, short life and difficult maintenance. Due to many advantages of LED, it is also suitable to replace traditional light source. At the same time, it is convenient to use the digital circuit control system, so as to realize the on-line monitoring of the lighting parameters of the lantern. The Haikou AtoN department which is belongs to the Navigation Guarantee Center of South China Sea(NGCE),MOT, will also carry out explorations and experiments on this theoretical basis.
5.Transform the control system and communication system of the lantern, ensure the reliable operation of the lantern, and realize the function of remoting monitoring and control. The control system of the historical lantern is relatively complex. After repeated transformation, the control circuit is complex, which increasing the difficulty of maintenance. Restore and transform the function of the historical lantern.
6.Using modern technology to realize the digitization and intellectualization of historical lighthouses. The digitization and intellectualization of the historical lighthouse is realized through the transformation of the lantern, which is an important embodiment of science and technology assisted AToN. To realize the digitization and intelligence of historical lighthouses, and to change the power scheme without changing the overall shape. Power needs the power input which can be controlled digitally to realize the digitization and intellectualization of the lantern.
7.Restore the original appearance of the lighthouse. During many years of air corrosion, the surface of the historic lighthouse still has a thick layer of rust and paint after normal maintenance. This corrosion under the paint layer will continue to erode the lighthouse and the surface of the lantern. According to the principle of “restore the old as the old”, the paint layer and rust layer on the surface are removed, and the surface is treated again to ensure the anti-corrosion performance of the historical lantern.
8.Transformation of rotating part. The large rotating lantern of the Lingao Lighthouse is partially powered by a heavy hammer. The gravity of the hammer itself drives the reducer, drives the bulleyes’ lantern tower, and realizes the beam rotation, and now, the way to achieve this method is to transform a motor next to the gearbox, through a matching reducer, drive the bulleyes’ lens to install and rotate, and realize the beam rotation movement. Above the main body of the lantern is a rotating part, and below is a fixed part. Among them, the relative rotation between the rotating part and the fixed part should be realized by the bearing. In the design of the lantern, mercury is used to support the rotating part to achieve relative rotation. The rotating part is filled with mercury between the fixed part and the rotating part. Through the buoyancy of the rotating part, the rotating part floats above the fixed part, while ensuring the gap between the two parts, so as to realize the rotation of the lens part.
9.Building Lighthouse Pavilion. The first lighthouse pavilion in Hainan province was built at the current site of the Lingao Lighthouse. The pavilion covers an area of 80 square meters and construction began in December 2012.The exhibition contents include the distribution map of Hainan coastal beacon, the function and distribution of 25 lighthouses in Hainan, the historical origin and log of Lingao lighthouse, and the lamps, lantern tower, lantern housing and other objects used throughout the history. At the entrance of the pavilion is the striking “Burn Yourself to illuminate Others”, which well conveys the spirit of the lighthouse to the public. The pavilion records the detailed deeds of the Lingao lighthouse and the history of the development of lighting technology, which reflects the combination of Chinese and Western cultures. The time-honored lamp holder and lighthouse diary are on display.
10.Publicize lighthouses through a variety of media. including the large-scale documentary The Chinese Lighthouse, which has greatly improved the popularity of Chinese lighthouses, the Lingao Lighthouse is one of them.
11.The large-scale MV You Are the Lighthouse which organized by China MSA has won the widely acclaim from all sectors of society once it was launched.
12.As an important link in the construction of the lighthouse link around the island, the Lingao Lighthouse will also receive the attention of the government and the maritime authorities. It will receive greater, better and more comprehensive protection and repair efforts.
|Public Access and Education
Lingao Lighthouse, as a historical lighthouse, is currently in a semi-open state in order to strengthen the protection of historical lighthouses. The lighthouse is located in the scenic area of Liberation Park, and is not open to all tourists. However, visitors with educational significance and publicity value are welcome. Lingao Lighthouse carries out activities such as “Lighthouse Culture Enters Campus”, “Water Safety Knowledge Enters Campus” and “Popular Science of AtoN Knowledge” every year in schools and wharfs for the publicity of AtoN and historical lighthouses. In combination with the opportunity of “World AtoNs Day”, lighthouse culture publicity activities will also be carried out.
1.Semi-open to the public. In order to enhance the protection of the historic lighthouse and reduce the burden of lighthouse managers, Lingao Lighthouse is in a semi-open management mode for tourists. “Maritime institutions”, cultural relics protection departments, school student groups and government organizations can visit the lighthouse free of charge when there is an appointment and the AtoN department is convenient, to feel the century-old lighthouse culture and experience the enthusiasm of modern navigation AtoN technology.
2.Regularly carry out the publicity activities of “Lighthouse Culture Enters Campus” and “Water Safety Knowledge Enters Campus”, etc. To popularize navigation knowledge and introduce lighthouse culture to local primary and middle school students in the way of class lectures. Publicize the protection of historical lighthouses and AtoNs to users by distributing leaflets and setting up billboards at docks.
3.Open activities for lighthouses on important dates such as World Navigation Day and World AtoN Day. Lighthouse opening activities will be carried out on important dates, and on the premise of ensuring the safety of historical lighthouses from being damaged, lighthouses will be opened to tourists, so that more people can feel the history of lighthouses and the culture of navigation aids.
4. Future Imagination Combined with International Tourism Island Policy. The 25 lighthouses around the island of Hainan form a natural “lighthouse chain”. As an important link of the lighthouse chain, the Lingao Lighthouse not only has a beautiful landscape value, but also has a historical value, and has a navigational value for the ships on sea. If we can work together with tourism agencies to build and protect historical lighthouses and do tourism well, it will not only respond to the major policies and trends, but also bring immeasurable opportunities for navigation aids culture to enter the public horizon.
5. Media coverage and publicity. In recent years, there have been numerous reports about the Lingao lighthouse, and the story of guarding the lighthouse behind the lighthouse has also surfaced. Many media, such as Hainan Daily and China News Service, have reported on the Lingao Lighthouse and the story behind it, and relevant reports have also been introduced into the popular platform for reporting and propaganda. Lingao Lighthouse has become an important well-known name card of local history and culture.